Sino Soviet Border Agreement

17 Aralık 2020

The exact location of the Russian-Russian border on the left bank of the Tumen River was a conflict zone (the entire right bank of the river, which belongs to North Korea). The Beijing Agreement put the border position 24 km (15 miles) above the mouth of the river, where it is in the Sea of Japan, but by Chinese negotiations was then moved about 15 or 16 km (9 mi) above the mouth. In 1964, the two sides agreed on a limit of about 17 km above the mouth and these conditions were maintained in the 1991 agreement. The Russian side preferred however to be settled at 24 km and the Chinese at 15 km. The final position was set 18.3 km above the mouth of the river. China`s relations with the USSR remained furious after the conflict, despite border talks that began in 1969 and continued for a decade without results. Domestically, the danger of war caused by border conflicts has opened a new stage of the Cultural Revolution; China`s deep militarization. The 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, held on the island of Zhenbao after the incident, confirmed Defense Minister Lin Biao as Mao`s heir. After the events of 1969, the Soviet Union continued to strengthen its troops along the Sino-Soviet border and in the Mongolian People`s Republic. Menkeseli was a 17.5 km2 region along the Argun River, which should have been transferred to China under the agreement.

But this was refused by local Russian civilians who used this area for fishing. The dispute was finally concluded in 1996, during which the region was to be transferred to China, while guaranteeing local Russian residents special use rights for the region. For a long time, during the Cultural Revolution, the central leadership of Beijing was not united. From January 1967, many officials and ministries of the Council of State were disorganized, politics radicalized and the voices of moderates were not heard. In the spring and summer of 1967, the Minister of Foreign Affairs was attacked by the Red Guard and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was controlled by the Red Guards during the July and August games. In such an atmosphere, border incidents could easily have been committed without the knowledge or against the policies of Beijing`s leaders. The Red Guards, not the locals, could be behind many border incidents that the Soviets complained about. From January 1967, the militia was dominated by the Red Guards and until the end of the summer, the army was prohibited from interfering in the activities of the Cultural Revolution, except under the leadership of the left-wing rebel rebel revolutionary forces of the Red Guard. There are proposals for the construction of a cross-border highway and the Altai gas pipeline from China to Russia, which would cross the western section of the Sino-Russian border.

[23] Civil navigation is permitted on border rivers and lakes, provided that each country`s ships remain on the corresponding side of the demarcation line (Article 9); Similar rules apply to fishing in these waters (Article 10).